Blacks in Grey: Confederates on the Blue Ridge Parkway


Using a mirror to side-light a headstone can help make the inscription more legible.

SEAC archeologists recently completed their first mobilization mapping cemeteries along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia. These cemeteries range from single graves seemingly forgotten in the woods just off of the Parkway to regularly arranged and named, well-maintained multi-family graveyards with well-made headstones and regularly refreshed artificial flowers. Others are overgrown plots filled with poison ivy, greenbriar, and poplar and sassafras saplings, with clusters of field stones whose pattern is only manifest when the pin flags are set.

The Reynolds Cemetery, also known as the Claytor Cemetery, is one of the latter, but was one of the largest cemeteries we’ve mapped along the Blue Ridge so far. In recent years, the Friends of the Blue Ridge Parkway Adopt-A-Cemetery program has brought some much needed care to several cemeteries along the Parkway. We recorded more than 65 graves in the Reynolds Cemetery, some dating as late as the 1980s. There were clearly more depressions than grave markers; no doubt some temporary plaques have been lost, and headstones and footstones displaced. More graves might have gone unrecorded if not for the clean up efforts of the Blue Ridge Parkway’s partners.


Reynolds Cemetery, aka Claytor Cemetery

Reynolds is particularly unique among the burial spaces we’ve investigated as part of this project because it is an African African cemetery. It is located opposite the Pine Spur overlook, part of what was intended to become a recreation area designated for African Americans. Development of Pine Spur began prior to the desegregation of the National Park Service, blueprints were produced and a ball park, swing sets, and some driveways were built, but save for the overlook, the Pine Spur Recreation Area was never completed.

Click here to

explore a georeferenced 1934 map of Pine Spur !

Can you find the cemetery?


1940 blueprint for the Pine Spur Recreation Area.

An appraisal report made during land acquisitions for the proposed recreation area states that, “In the center of this tract there is a negro graveyard, which has been used by Negros in this vicinity for a number of years. The graveyard contains about one-half acre.” The report describes the cemetery as, “an undesirable feature of this tract.”


Humphrey Claytor’s headstone.

Did the presence of the cemetery play a role in preventing the development of the recreation area? Did the community who buried their dead there actively seek to prevent development? What role did the racist policies of the Jim Crow era play? How did America’s entry into World War II impact development plans? Interesting questions, but the cemetery’s intrigue hardly stops there.

Humphrey Claytor was reportedly the earliest interment in the Reynolds Cemetery. Claytor was an African American Confederate soldier and his grave is marked with a military headstone. He was born in October 1842, in Franklin County, Virginia. Between 1863 and 1865, he served as a private in the Confederate Army. In the year following the war, he married Mary Jane Ferris and their first son, Giles, was born. He was a farmer, married three times, twice widowed, and had five sons and seven daughters between 1866 and 1886. He died on May 28, 1926, in Floyd County, Virginia, at the age of 83.


1936 military headstone application for Humphrey Claytor shipped by his daughter.

It is not a secret that African Americans fought for the Confederacy – it’s history. The recent debate over the sale and display of Confederate flags on government property and the highly publicized speeches of the recently deceased Anthony Hervey, perhaps the most vocal African American supporter of the Confederate flag as a symbol of Southern pride and not racism, has brought discussion about black confederates more into the limelight.

Check out an interesting blog on

the Recollections of a Confederate Servant !


(Right to left) Sergeant A.M. Chandler of the 44th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, Co. F., and Silas Chandler, family slave.

Throughout the Civil War enslaved African Americans were conscripted by the Confederacy, leased from slave owners, and brought to the war as servants by white Confederate officers. There were also free African American men, some of whom held others as slaves, who voluntarily enlisted. At Confederate President Jefferson Davis’s request, the use of 20,000 free blacks and slaves in noncombatant roles, such as cooks, laborers, nurses, and teamsters was authorized by the Confederate Congress in February 1864. In November of that year, Davis asked the Confederate Congress to purchase 40,000 slaves for noncombatant duty. It became legal for African Americans to fight in the Confederate army on March 13,1865, long after the United States had begun recruiting free and formerly enslaved African Americans.

Frank Baker, James Townsend and Sheppard Mallory presented before General Benjamin Butler.

Frank Baker, James Townsend and Sheppard Mallory were slaves of a Confederate officer and had been pressed into service constructing gun emplacements at Sewell’s Point at today’s Norfolk Naval Station. Under cover of the darkness on the night of May 23, 1861, the three rowed across Hampton Roads in a stolen boat and presented themselves to the guards at Fort Monroe, one of our newest national monuments. When Confederate Army Major John Cary requested that the men be returned pursuant to the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, the commanding officer, General Benjamin Butler refused, stating that the Confederate States of America was a foreign power with which the United States was at war and that the men in question were property that had been and would be used by the enemy against the United States if were they returned. The three men has been were confiscated by the United States Army as Contraband of War.


African American soldiers of Company E, 4th USCT Infantry.

During the Civil War, thousands of enslaved African Americans abandoned the places where they had been forced to work and sought refuge with the United States Army. The army called them Contraband and the places they lived, Contraband Camps. From among these, thousands of African Americans enlisted in the United States Colored Troops and fought to preserve the Union as much as their own freedom from enslavement.

Interested in United States Colored Troops? Click hear to watch a short video on the USCT in Natchez, Mississippi !

What were Claytor’s motivations for fighting for the Confederate cause?  Did he join under duress? Was he a slave owner who felt strongly about preserving the institution of slavery? Perhaps, despite the speeches delivered at the Virginia Secession Convention and more in tune with the careful language of Virginia’s Declaration of Secession, he believed he was fighting for the more innocuous oft cited value of “state’s rights”. Perhaps he was promised his freedom or at least his family’s compensation if he enlisted.


Temporary plaque marking the grave of Octavia Jane Claytor, daughter of Humphrey Claytor.

Some may find it interesting that the African American community would bury so many of their own around a Black Confederate soldier – a character that seems anathema to many of us in the drama of the Civil WarWhat inspired the black community to lay beside him in death?

According to the 1930s appraisal report mentioned above, “The present owners [had] endeavored to stop burials in this plot but have failed.” Was it too difficult for African Americans to find an accessible alternative burial plot in the era of segregation? The majority of the graves in the Reynolds Cemetery are marked only with field stones which, while reflecting little information about the person interred besides possibly being a child or adult, suggest that the deceased or their survivors could not afford a professionally carved headstone. Perhaps any alternative was too expensive for most people to purchase, maintain, or even visit.

Claytor lived a long life following his discharge after the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House. After the war, he lived as a farmer in Locust Grove, Floyd County, not five miles west of the the Blue Ridge Parkway and the Pine Spur Overlook.  He picked up his mail and applied for his veterans pension at the Floyd County Courthouse in Floyd, Virginia.

Confederate veteran pensions? Virginia began granting pensions to white Confederate veterans in 1888 but not until the 1920s was this extended to black Confederate veterans. Interestingly, Claytor applied in 1921. The Federal government began granting pensions to Confederate veterans in the 1930s.


First page of Humphrey Claytors 1921 Disabled Confederate Soldier Pension Application.

African American applications for Confederate veteran pensions were required to include affidavits from two white ex-Confederate soldiers or, if none could be found, two local white men of good reputation. A man named Walker Claytor signed an Affidavit of Comrades as part of Humphrey’s 1921 pension application, making an oath that he joined as an enlisted soldier and not as a servant.

Walker Claytor had served as a sergeant in Company G, 37th Battalion Calvary Regiment of Virginia. He was a white man and the son of Harvey Claytor, of a well-to-do farmer and former slave owner. Additional research may suss out the nature of the relationship between Walker and Humphrey but in the 1921 affidavit, Walker swore that he had known Humphrey for 75 years!

The SEAC mapping crew stayed in the town of Floyd during the trip. The locals to whom I made mention of Humphrey Claytor had not heard of him or his grave in particular, but they did say that Claytor is well-known surname in that part of the Commonwealth. Folks were quick to recommend exploring Claytor Lake State Park, a lovely place to visit and the site of the Haven B. Howe House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. But hardly steeped in the drama of the story of a black Confederate soldier buried in a nearly forgotten cemetery on the Blue Ridge Parkway.

This year, high emotions and heated debates have surrounded the meaning 2009 National Park Service Employee & Alumni Ass. Calendarof the Confederate flag and whether or not to raze monuments to Confederate soldiers. On the eve of the 150th anniversary of the Reconstruction Era perhaps it is appropriate that we revisit these issues and re-examine our understanding of our shared history. How will we choose to understand the African American men that willingly or unwillingly fought for the Confederacy? Why did they choose to fight? We’re they pawns in an ideological battle over equal rights? In enlisting, were they the masters of their own destinies? How were they received by their communities after the war? Should their descendants be ashamed of their ancestors’ loyalties or be proud of their bravery and self-sacrifice? The resources to explore answers these questions are out there, don’t be afraid to look!

Share something about African American Civil War soldiers!

Know something about the Claytors’ story or the African American community around Pine Spur Overlook?

Please, share your thoughts

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or on Twitter @NPSSEAC and Facebook !


Check out SEAC’s interactive online GIS map of historic cemeteries at Mammoth Cave National Park ! (It may take a few seconds to load..)

Saved by Grace, Mapped by Archeologists: historic cemeteries at Blue Ridge Parkway


RASP archeologists Guy Prentice and Robert Hellmann mapping with a total station.


A stone chimney once part of a house in a community in Rock Castle Gorge.

Between August 23rd and September 3rd, archeologists from SEAC’s Regionwide Archeological Survey Program (RASP) recorded and mapped cemeteries on the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia, from Mabry Mill to the northern end of the Parkway at Shenandoah National Park. This stretch of the park mostly runs along the central ridge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The park generally manages 400 feet from centerline on both sides of the majority of the road but Cultural Resource Project Manager Steven Kidd described the Parkway as “a string of pearls,” the 469-mile ribbon of asphalt set at intervals with various overlooks, visitor information stations, interpretive centers, and recreation areas.

For millennia Native Americans camped, hunted, gathered, fished, and quarried stone at places along what would become the Blue Ridge Parkway. Perhaps as early as the 1730s, Anglo Americans and African Americans migrated to the region south from Pennsylvania and west from the Virginia coast and Piedmont. These settlers established homesteads, farms, mills and stills in the mountains and set aside places to bury their dead.


The Thompson Cemetery.


Click this image to explore the Mammoth Cave interactive map.

The mapping project was prompted by Blue Ridge Parkway after SEAC published an interactive online GIS map of cemeteries within Mammoth Cave National Park that includes individual grave locations, photos and metadata. It is accessible to members of the public and professionals alike. The data collected during this project will also be made available on the Find-A-Grave website. The information is important to the descendants of those buried in cemeteries in the parks and researchers in fields like genealogy, as well as park visitors and NPS resource managers.


Yucca can be clues to the location of historic cemeteries at Blue Ridge Parkway.

The cemeteries visited during this mobilization included those marked only by a single undressed flagstone set on end in the woods or a cattle pasture, family plots near abandoned homesteads, multi-family graveyards with various kinds of markers, to large well-organized and maintained community burial grounds with monumental stone signs. Sometimes the most apparent clue to the location of a cemetery were ornamental yucca plants among the poison ivy, greenbriar, and sassafras saplings.

The location of at least each footstone and headstone at each marked grave in each cemetery was recorded. A total station was used in larger cemeteries, and measuring tapes, compass and graph paper  in smaller cemeteries. Photos of each marker were taken and all inscriptions were recorded. No rubbings were made but a mirror was used to side-light weathered inscriptions making them more legible and better defined in pictures.

Certain cemeteries were very clearly situated in a broader cultural landscape that imbued them with a more personal context. For example, the Painter Cemetery was located across the Parkway for the Painter homestead.


The Painter homestead.


Headstone of John King, a veteran of the Revolutionary War.


Headstone of Humphrey Claytor, an African American Confederate soldier.

Some cemeteries stood out for the presence of certain burials. For example, the Wimmer-Poff Cemetery contained the grave of a Revolutionary War veteran. The Reynolds Cemetery contained the grave of an African-American Civil War soldier. Other cemeteries brought to mind questions about the lives and deaths of the individuals buried in them. For instance, do many of the stones engraved with death dates between 1918 and 1920 mark graves of people who perished during the 1918 influenza pandemic?

On the ground, in spite of the tedium of the process, recording each grave felt like an act in memoriam for each individual. Some of the most moving plots were those that contained a couple’s infant children, like the Tates’ who lost three sets of twins; or double headstones for husbands and wives who died decades apart or where only half of a couple was buried.


The graves of the three sets of infant twins buried by James and Bessie Tate.


An elaborately incised headstone for a young woman.

While familiar epitaphs like “Gone but not forgotten” were recorded, several unique remembrances stood out; some seemingly ironic like, “Saved by grace, if saved”, others movingly forlorn like, “How desolate our home bereft of thee “. Many professionally carved and inscribed headstones and footstones were recorded as well as a few hand carved field stones sometimes both marking different graves in the same cemetery.

Documenting cemeteries as important historic resources rarely requires justification. They seem to have an inherent significance to all of us; a tacit understanding that can be more elusive when trying to explain reasons for mapping the ruins of a poor farmer’s cabin, an old whiskey still, or a wagon road. But together, these and other elements are parts of historic cultural landscapes that can teach us about what it was like to live and die in the past and how these stories are part and parcel of the big picture narrative of the human experience.

MACA little hope cemetery

Experience the interactive GIS map of cemeteries at 
Mammoth Cave National Park here

Interested in recording historic cemeteries in the Blue Ridge Parkway ?Adopt a Cemetery BrochureLearn more about how you can get involved with the Friends of the Blue Ridge Parkway here !

Visit the Find-A-Grave website here !Find A Grave logo

Katrina Wood: NPS Archives and Collections Volunteer at SEAC!

As part of the support for the archives and collections of the National Park Service, I am pleased to spend time in the Southeast Archeological Center’s library. My role focuses on the upkeep and organization of the materials. KWood_Fig1I reunite books and materials with their cards, shelving said materials when the happy reunion is complete. I’m also on hand to assist patrons (in whatever form they may take) and to take on projects as graciously given by SEAC Museum Specialists.

My background includes previous work in the federal sector; I was an intern for two separate units of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). With the NARA, I re-housed documents, prepared them for researchers, wrote communication and social media pieces, and I wrote for Prologue, the agency’s quarterly magazine. Whether the subject matter be the facial hair of statesmen or the proceedings of the preservation process at the Charles Pinckney National Historic Site, I am invested in making the archival collections of entities known.

In my current library, a portion of the residents include archeological records, logs, observations, hand-drawn and labeled maps, and project plans that are grouped by National Park. These are the parks located within the Southeast Region, and they each have an acronym. There are ongoing projects and materials arriving from sites, yet my materials traffic usually concerns settled, steadfast materials that need to be kept in KWood_Fig2order and returned if borrowed—there is not an accessible digital library as of yet.

Other materials are where some of the directly related but curious items appear. For instance, I found an Annual Report for the National Museum of Canada. It was published in 1929. Being a librarian who has gone the museum and cultural heritage institutions route, I can speak to some of the advances in preservation, programming, exhibits and so forth since then. I’m not one to hastily weed out materials, however, so my stewardship remains impartial. I enjoy the discovery of Smithsonian Reports, background on the real-life Chief Osceola, traditions of the first peoples of the Southeast, and a wealth of best practices for handling objects that will only be excavated once.

KWood_Fig3To sum up the SEAC Library, it is a collection of intellectually rich archeological and natural-related resources. It is also a meeting place that is sometimes forgotten in the daily shuffle of paperwork, deadlines, and on-site demands. I only hope to maintain a space that can be appreciated by a wider network of patrons as awareness and accessibility increase. After all, the card catalog alone is reason enough to look further into the SEAC holdings!

Check out a previous Prologue blog entry by Katrina Wood on Sir Frederick Bruce’s facial hair here!

Read about more SEAC Intern and Volunteer experiences here!

A SEAC Dive Team Preview!


(Left to right) Jeneva Wright of the NPS Submerged Resources Center, Cassity Bromley Chief of Resources, Gulf Islands National Seashore, and Charlie Sproul of the SEAC dive team sitting on the deck of the Submerged Resources Center’s vessel, Cal Cummings, preparing to investigate another underwater anomaly.

The Southeast Archeological Center Dive Team regularly gets called out to help on projects with the Submerged Resources Center (SRC). Earlier this summer our dive team helped out SRC on a project at Gulf Islands National Seashore.

Charlie Sproul is a SEAC Museum Specialist by day and a SEAC Diver….also by day…sometimes both on the same day! He recently returned from participating in another collaborative project at Dry Tortugas National Park.

More on these and other underwater archeological investigations to come!

Thanks Again to the Byrd Hammock Summer Field School Volunteers!

Byrd Hammock

As the Byrd Hammock Summer Field School draws to a close we would like to take this opportunity to once again thank our volunteers for all of their help and willingness to brave heat and bugs.

Were you part of the Byrd Hammock Summer Field School?

We’d love you to hear about your experience! Comment below or on the Southeast Archeological Center’s Facebook page or Twitter @NPSSEAC!

Byrd HammockByrd HammockByrd Hammock

Byrd HammockByrd Hammock

Byrd Hammock

Have you read the article about the

Byrd Hammock field school in the Wakulla News ?! 

Or maybe you’ve read the article and seen the video about the Byrd Hammock field school from the Tallahassee Democrat !

For some more technical information, why not check out Claire Elizabeth Nanfro’s Florida State University Anthropology Master’s Thesis on the Faunal Remains from the 1968 excavations at the site here !

What are Faunal Remains, you say? Learn about it here!

Don’t forget to comment below…

#seac2740 Cowpens Battlefield Survey

Battle of COWP

Battle of Cowpens by Charles McBarron

Have you been following Southeast Archeological Center archeologists’ survey at the Revolutionary War site of Cowpens National Battlefield on Twitter or Facebook

The park is located in Cherokee County, South Carolina, near the town of Chesnee. The battle was a significant link in a chain of disasters in the South that ultimately led to the final British defeat at Yorktown, Virginia.


Project Archeologist Michael Seibert hamming up a selfie while metal detectors are hard at work.

Project Archeologist Michael Seibert has been keeping us updated as they conduct shovel testing and metal detecting surveys in what they believe may be the location of Morgan’s Camp based on historic documents.


Local visitors learn about the project and battlefield archeology from SEAC archeologist Jessica Fry.

The survey is part of the Regionwide Archeological Survey Plan for the Southeast Region and will assist the park in their Section 110 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requirements. The survey will also provide Section 106 of the NHPA for any possible future park additions or alterations to the survey area. The location of the camp will enhance the parks ability to interpret the battle, providing a more complete narrative to the visitors.

The Southern Campaign of the Revolutionary War, especially in the backcountry, was essentially a civil war as the colonial population split between Patriot and Loyalist, often pitting neighbor against neighbor and re-igniting old feuds and animosities. Both Patriots and Loyalist organized militias, and engaged each other often. The countryside was devastated, and raids and reprisals were commonplace.


General Daniel Moore

From 1779 through 1780, British redcoats came south en masse. They captured Savannah, Georgia, then Charleston and Camden in South Carolina. In the process, they defeated and captured much of the Southern Continental Army.

Into this conflict, General George Washington sent the capable Nathanael Greene to take command of the Southern army. Against military custom, Greene, just two weeks into his command split his army; he sent General Daniel Morgan southwest of the Catawba River to cut supply lines and hamper British operations in the backcountry and “spirit up the people.”


Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton

General Cornwallis, British commander in the South, countered Greene’s move by sending Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton to block Morgan’s actions. Tarleton was only twenty-six, but he was an able commander. He was both feared and hated, particularly for his actions at the Battle of Waxhaws, during which he continued the fight despite Continental Army’s attempts to surrender. According to lore, his refusal of surrender and pleas for quarter led to the derisive term “Tarleton’s Quarter”.

These events set the stage for the Battle of Cowpens, January 17, 1781. The battle took place in the latter part of the Southern Campaign and towards the end of the American Revolution and has become known as the turning point of the war in the South, part of a chain of events leading to the Patriot victory at Yorktown.


1786 Map of the Cowpens area

Prior to the battle, Morgan and his men were camped near Thicketty Creek to the south of the Broad River. On the afternoon of January 16, 1781, Morgan learned that Tarleton was only six miles away. Morgan broke camp and departed for Hannah’s Cowpens where he prepared for battle, commanding a force of a little over 900 hundred men. The location of Morgan’s Camp remains unknown.


Metal detectors and archeologists search of Morgan’s Camp in the woods

The large number of static troops preparing for the upcoming fight with British forces would have left a significant archeological signature. The soldiers, biding their time before the next day’s battle, would have either intentionally or unintentionally left a range of artifacts from buttons, insignia, carved bullets, munitions, and cooking utensils among other items. Similar artifacts have been recovered from Revolutionary and Civil War camps by archeologists and amateur metal detectors (Harris 1987:210).

According Michael’s facebook page:

fired balls

Fired rifle/pistol ball (left) and fired musketball (right). Notice the difference in size.

“Cowpens Survey 2015: After 2 days and 14 acres of metal detecting later: 2 tablespoons, 4 chains, 6 wrenches, 2 angle iron fragments, 1 5 gallon tin lid, 12 pipes/tubes, 2 tent stakes, 9 bull ets/cartridges, 1 padlock, 1 cap gun, 20 shotgun shells, 1 Sergeants Insignia, 2 hand grenade fuses, 1 pencil, 2 lighters, 5 bed springs, 66 assorted wire, 1 shovel spade, 13 iron sewage pipe fragments, 1 coffee pot, 31 car parts, 1 plastic flower, 7 modern buttons, 1 lawnmower handle, 1 spoon, 52 nuts/bolts, 83 tin cans, 74 pull tabs, 75 wire nails, 43 bottle caps, 21 strap iron/aluminum, 17 glass fragments, 150 beer cans, 50 aluminum foil, 51 modern coins, 1 zipper pull, 1 walkman, 46 unidentified, 13 household fixtures, 60 tractor parts.

Oh and 24 musketballs (among other historic artifacts yet to be counted)”

SEAC archeologists will be at Cowpens until the end of the month. Stop by and see how the project is going #FindYourPark.

If you make it out, give us a shout on Twitter @NPSSEAC #seac2740 or Facebook!


With baited breath, SEAC archeologist Eric Bezemek waits to see what the metal detector has found

Check out Michael Seibert’s interview on 15 Questions with an Archeologist !

This isn’t SEAC’s first visit to Cowpens National Battlefield. Learn a bit about the 2012 project here !


Harris, Charles S. 1987 Civil War Relics of the Western Campaigns 186-1865. Rapidan Press, Box 74, Mechanicsville, Virginia.

Artifact of the Week: Beads

Beads come in all shapes and sizes, oh and material! The material a bead is made out of can give you clues to the time and place the bead was manufactured as well as the people that used them.

8-14 Beads 1

8-14 Beads 2

This picture shows a variety of shell beads from Big Cypress National Preserve. These were recovered during a 1978 project that was done at the park.

#ArtifactoftheWeek #SEACCuration @BiscayneNPS

Workshop Held By Southern Revolutionary War Sites


The text in this story is directly quoted from the article written By Ginny Fowler that appears on August 12, 2015 

“Workshop Held By Southern Revolutionary War Sites

On July 24th and July 25th, the Southern Campaign of the Revolution Parks Group, consisting of Kings Mountain National Military Park, Cowpens National Battlefield, Ninety Six National Historic Site, and the Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail, and the Southeast Archeological Center (SEAC), hosted a workshop for battlefield scholars and volunteers to discuss the future role of historical and archeological research within the group of parks, their role in the community, how to engage the community in partnerships with the NPS, and how the NPS can assist them with research goals and heritage preservation.

Led by John Cornelison of the Southeast Archeological Center, the participants heard world-renowned battlefield archeologist Dr. Douglas Scott’s presentation on “Shot and Shell Tell the Tale,” an introduction to archeology. Dr. Larry Babits gave an overview of the Southern Campaigns of the American Revolution, Scott Butler spoke about the Battle of Waxhaws, and Kristen McMasters of the American Battlefield Protection Program talked about Military Terrain Analysis. The group then set archaeological goals for the Southern Campaign of the Revolution Parks Group, which included identifying and evaluating resources, identifying unknown sites, assessing how to locate resources, and rapid publication of results, even if they are incomplete.

The participants decided that their joint mission would be to highlight the importance of the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution in the overarching theme of American Independence by linking local, county, state, and national resources into a national network. They will accomplish this by developing the initial framework to study, celebrate, and better understand the 250th anniversary of the American Revolution.

Additionally, Michael Siebert from SEAC spoke about the upcoming archaeological investigation at Cowpens National Battlefield. On the last three weekends of August, archeologists, researchers, and volunteers will be continuing investigations on the Battle of Cowpens. The primary goal for the project is to confirm and define the battle lines from the 1781 battle. Secondary goals include the location of General Daniel Morgan’s camp and where the British dead may have been buried after the patriot victory.

Following the completion of the field work, the archeologists will take any recovered artifacts back to SEAC in Tallahassee where they will be analyzed, cataloged, entered into a geographical information system, and examined with a portable x-ray florescence machine to determine the composition and source of the object. To follow the archaeological project on Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, search for the hashtag #SEAC2740.”